Research > Microbe > Bacteria > Enterobacter


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Common Names for Hypochlorous Acid Solutions


  • Electrolytically Generated Hypochlorous Acid
  • Neutral Electrolyzed Water (NEW)
  • Electrolyzed Oxidizing Water (EOW)
  • Electro-chemically Activated Water (ECA)
  • Super-oxidized water (SOW)


Results: 2 published articles


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Microbe(s): Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Morganella morganii, Proteus hauseri


This study investigated efficacy of electrolyzed oxidizing water (EO water) and ice (EO ice) treatments in reducing histamine-producing bacteria (Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Morganella morganii and Proteus hauseri) on food contact surfaces (ceramic tile and stainless steel) and fish skin (Atlantic salmon and yellowfin tuna). Soaking ceramic tile and stainless steel in EO water (50 ppm chlorine) for 5 min inactivated inoculated bacteria on the surface (>0.92 to >5.4 log CFU/cm2 reductions). E. cloacae, K. pneumoniae and P. hauseri did not survive well on fish skin. Soaking salmon skin in EO water (100 ppm chlorine) for 120 min resulted in 1.3 and 2.2 log CFU/cm2 reductions of E. aerogenes and M. morganii, respectively. A treatment of EO ice (100 ppm chlorine) for 24 h was capable of reducing E. aerogenes and M. morganii on tuna skin by 2.4 and 3.5 log CFU/cm2, respectively. EO water and EO ice can be used as post-harvest treatments for reducing histamine-producing bacteria on food contact surfaces and fish skin.



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Microbe(s): Enterobacter aerogenes, Staphylococcus aureus


The effectiveness of electrolyzed (EO) water at killing Enterobacter aerogenes and Staphylococcus aureus in pure culture was evaluated. One milliliter (approximately 109 CFU/ml) of each bacterium was subjected to 9 ml of EO water or control water (EO water containing 10% neutralizing buffer) at room temperature for 30 s. Inactivation (reduction of >9 log10 CFU/ml) of both pathogens occurred within 30 s after exposure to EO water containing approximately 25 or 50 mg of residual chlorine per liter. The effectiveness of EO water in reducing E. aerogenes and S. aureus on different surfaces (glass, stainless steel, glazed ceramic tile, unglazed ceramic tile, and vitreous china) was also evaluated. After immersion of the tested surfaces in EO water for 5 min without agitation, populations of E. aerogenes and S. aureus were reduced by 2.2 to 2.4 log10 CFU/cm2 and by 1.7 to 1.9 log10 CFU/cm2, respectively, whereas washing with control water resulted in a reduction of only 0.1 to 0.3 log10 CFU/cm2. The washing of tested surfaces in EO water with agitation (50 rpm) reduced populations of viable cells on the tested surfaces to <1 CFU/cm2. For the control water treatment with agitation, the surviving numbers of both strains on the tested surfaces were approximately 3 log10 CFU/cm2. No viable cells of either strain were observed in the EO water after treatment, regardless of agitation. However, large populations of both pathogens were recovered from control wash solution after treatment.